Origin/Historian/Author: Assyrian, ca 700 BCE
Source: Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament, Robert William Rogers


This text, which dates back to the reign of Sennacherib in the 8th century BCE, is dedicated to the Assyrian Creator God Ashur, also known as the Babylonian Marduk (or Sumerian Enlil). It recounts his birth in the ocean and his role as the creator of Heaven and the Underworld, Man, and other feats unique to Marduk. Although it is a very short text, the information stated allows us to draw parallels or understand the actions performed by this character, in comparison to others similar identities such as Enki who also created Man and determined fates or destinies.

Lines one through three describe Ashur and his origin. The ocean here is a reference to the Deep or the Apsu located in Eridu, Marduk’s birthplace. Lines five and six are a reference to the creation of the Anu Ziggurat, aka Heaven. Ashur is also credited with establishing Esharra, which in the Babylonian Enuma Elish is established by Marduk. It is without doubt that Marduk and Ashur are one in the same. By referring to other mythological texts, we can accurately place him as a brother to Anshar, as Asarluhi or Assur. The term Marduk is nothing more than a title or variation of Mariyutu, which means Son of the Sun God.

Full Text Below

1. Ashur the Creator
2. To Ashur, king of all the gods, their creator, father of
the gods,
3. Whose hand was developed in the ocean, king of the
heavens and the earth,
4. Lord of all the gods, sustainer of the Igigi and the
5. Creator of the heaven of Anu and of the Hades,
maker of all men,
6. Dweller in the brilliant skies, Lord of the gods,
determiner of destiny,
7. Inhabitant of Esharra, which is in Asshur. To his
great lord, his lord Sennacherib,
8. King of Assyria, maker of the statue of Ashur. The
great gods . . .
9. The length of his days, the goodness of his heart,
the stability of his years of reign . . .