Origin/Historian/Author: Sumerian, The Royal Inscriptions of Lagash (2100 BCE)
Source: The Sacred Books and Literature of the East, By Prof. Charles F. Horne, Ph.D.
The Sacred Books and Literature of the East Translations conducted by:
Morris Jastrow, Jr., LL.D., Rev. A.H. Sayce, LL.D., Robert W. Rogers, LL.D., George A. Barton, LL.D., Leonard W. King, F.S.A., Stephen Langdon, PH.D., Arno Poebel, PH.D., and other scholars.

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When in determining fate in heaven and earth he exalted Lagash with great decrees, Enlil upon the lord Ningirsu looked faithfully. ” In my city property exists not. The waters return not to their bank, the waters of Enlil (2) return not to their bank, the waters return not to their bank,
” The high flood gleams not full of strength, the waters of Enlil, like the Tigris, flow not with fresh water. The temple its kings shall proclaim, Eninnu, in heaven and earth, he shall cause to arise in splendor.”
The Patesi, who is a man of vast understanding, exercised understanding. Great things he burnt as offering. Seemly oxen and kids he caused to be brought directly.
He exalted the brick of destiny. To build the holy temple he elevated it toward him (i.e.,, Ningirsu). Unto his lord during the day and at midnight Gudea unto the lord Ningirsu gazed. He commanded him concerning the building of his temple; upon Eninnu, whose decrees are great, he looked.
Gudea, whose heart is profound, sighed these words, ” Verily, verily I will speak, verily, verily I will speak, with this command I will go. A shepherd am I; unto me hath one given majesty. That which midnight hath, brought unto me its meaning I understand not. Unto my mother my dream verily I will report.


” My prophetess instructed in what is proper, my Nina, the sister who is goddess in Sirara, verily its meaning will announce unto me.” In her boat she embarked not. In her city Nina, upon the river flowing at Nina, she caused her boat to remain. The river bright and glad, morning and evening rejoiced. In the Baga, house of the bright river, where water is taken, a sacrifice he made, pure water he poured out. ” Hero, raging panther, whom none can oppose O Ningirsu, who arises from the nether sea, in Nippur thou art glorious. O hero, what command shall I perform for thee faithfully ? Ningirsu, thy house I will build for thee. The decrees fittingly I will perform for thee. Thy sister, the child whom Eridu created, wise in what is fitting, lady prophetess of the gods, my Nina thy sister, goddess in Sirara, may she embark.”
Gudea was heard. His prayer from Gudea, his king the lord Ningirsu received. In the house Baga he performed sacred rituals.
The patesi to the temple of Gatumdug, her chamber of repose, went away. Sacrifices he made, pure water he poured out. Unto the sacred Gatumdug he went. This prayer he spoke to her. ” Oh my lady, child whom sacred Anu created, wise in what is fitting, eminent in heaven,


” Giving life to the land of Sumer, enlightener of her city, lady, mother who founded Lagash art thou. If thou lookest upon the people there is abundance in plenty. The pious hero whom thou lookest upon life is lengthened unto him. A mother I have not, my mother thou art; a father I have not, my father thou art. My father made evil his heart against me; in the great chamber thou hast nurtured me. O my Gatumdug, thou art wise in goodness. If in the night I recline myself, my great sword thou art; at my side thou standest. With a shining torch . . . thou. The breath of life thou Greatest for me. The protection of a mother art thou. Thy shadow I reverence. With thy mighty hand whose faithful power is supreme,
” Oh my lady, Gatumdug, me thou wilt make humble. Unto the city I will go. May my omen be favorable. Unto Nina, who rises above the world, may thy good genius go before me. May thy good angel go at my heel. Verily, verily I will speak; verily, verily I will speak. With these words I will go. Unto my mother my dream I will bring. My prophetess, wise in what is fitting, my Nina, the sister, goddess in Sirara, its meaning verily will reveal.” Gudea
was heard.


His lady, holy Gatumdug, received from Gudea his prayer.
In her boat she embarked not. At her city Nina, she left the boat fixed. The patesi in the court of the goddess of Sirara lifted his head heavenward. A sacrifice he made, pure water he poured out. Unto Nina he went, a prayer he brought. ” O Nina, lady of priestly rights, lady of precious decrees. O lady, like Enlil, deciding fates, O Nina, thy word is faithful; above all it excels. Prophetess of the gods art thou; mistress of the lands art thou. O mother, let me relate now the dream. The meaning of the dream I know not. There was a man like heaven was his form, like earth was his form; as to the crown of his head a god was he; at his side was the storm-bird; at his feet was the hurricane; at his right and at his left a panther lay. He commanded me to build his temple. His meaning I understand not. The sun arose from the world. There was a woman, who was it not, who was it? . . . she made. The sacred stylus she held in her hand. She possessed the tablet of the good stars.


” She counseled with herself.
” Secondly, there was a strong man; . . . a tablet of lapis lazuli he held in his hand. For the temple a plan he made. Before me an holy head basket he placed; the holy mold he arranged. The brick of fate in the mold he made. By the sacred . . . placed before me the . . . bird brought morning light to me. An ass crouched at the right of my lord.”
The patesi his mother Nina answered. ” My shepherd, thy dream I will interpret for thee. As for the man in form like heaven, in form like the earth, as to his head a god, at his side the storm-bird, at his feet the hurricane, at whose right and at whose left a panther lay, verily my brother Ningirsu it is. Thee he hast commanded the building of the abode of his Eninnu. The sun which arose from the world is thy god Gishzida; like the sun from the world he arose for thee. The maiden who . . . made, who in her hand held the sacred stylus, who possessed the tablet of the favorable stars, who counseled with herself, verily it is my sister Nidaba.


” By the bright star she announced unto thee the building of the temple. In the second place there is the strong man . . . who held in his hand a plate of lapis lazuli; it is the god Nindub. He fixes for thee the plan of the temple. The sacred head basket which was placed before thee, the sacred mold which was arranged, the brick of fate which was in the mold, verily, the holy brick of Eninnu it is. As for the holy . . . placed before thee in which the bird . . . brings the light of dawn to men, it means pleasant things shall not prevent thee from building the temple.
” As for the ass which crouched at the side of my lord, it is thee; in Eninnu, like . . . thou crouchest. May mason provide my purification. In Girsu, in the sanctuary of the land of Lagash, thou shalt set thy foot. In thy treasure-house change the tablets of accounts, remove therefrom wood. For thy king prepare a chariot. The ass yoke thereto. The sacred chariot with lapis lazuli adorn. The quiver like daylight shall shine. The divine sword of heroism adorn.
” His sacred emblem make, thy name write thereon. His beloved lyre, the usumgal of the land, instrument which has a sweet sound, which gives counsel, unto the hero who loves gifts,


” Thy King, the lord Ningirsu, in Eninnu, of the glorious storm-bird, cause to be brought in. Thy little words as great words he has received. Inasmuch as he whose heart is as profound as heaven, Ningirsu, the son of Enlil, appeases thee with his word, and reveals unto thee the plan of his temple; the hero whose decrees are great has blessed thee.”

(1) From the translation by S. Langdon, Reader of Assyriology at Oxford University, in his ” Sumerian Grammar and Chrestomathy.”
(2) ” The waters of Enlil ” means the canal, or river, at Lagash.