Origin/Historian/Author: Sumerian (ca. 2100 BCE)
Source: Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms, By Stephen Langdon, 1919

Recorded on a single tablet, this Sumerian text consists of two columns. Both of which are mostly complete with only a handful of illegible words. Although it is understood to be Sumerian, the translation provided here by Stephen Langdon identifies Anu by his Semitic or Akkadian name/title. Some consider this an error in translation, but perhaps the time in which it was recorded, the transition of power from Akkadian to Gutian to Neo-Sumerian rule, could offer some insight. Assimilation of culture could very well be a contributing factor as to why some texts composed during this and throughout the Akkadian period begin to show an amalgamation of characters and events.

Titled, Liturgical Hymn to Innini, it features the goddess who most know of as Inanna. As a title held by numerous goddesses, we must refer to the available genealogical information to determine which Inanna is mentioned here. In this text, the most relevant piece of information we can rely on is that here she is the beloved of Urasha. Ninegal was a wife of Urash, and in some god lists is mentioned before and/or after Inanna which indicates Inanna to be a title of Ninegal, the likely protagonist featured here.

The hymn begins with praise to the goddess Innini. As a lady of heaven, she has attained the divine right to rule. Here she is described as a crowned queen, created fit for rulership. Column I, line 5, states that her hand attained the seven decrees, some argue this refers to a unanimous vote from the seven gods who judge (or decree fates/destinies). Others consider the decrees in some cases to have been taken by force, as Innini is also described as storming up and over mountains, a possible reference to storming ziggurats/heavens. Column II, lines 20-23 describe the warlike nature of Innini, further affirming the notion that her right to rule was taken by force. Lastly, the text concludes stating that she seized the power of heaven, aka Anuship.

Full Text Below


1. Oh lady of the good decrees, that risest splendidly like the sun.
2. Faithful woman, bearing a sheen of terrible splendor, beloved of Urasha,
3. Heavenly virgin, queen(?) of the great songs,
4. Who puttest on a faithful crown, who hast been created fit for rulership,
5. Whose hand attaineth the seven decrees,
6. My queen, of the great decrees their directress art thou.
7. The decrees thou bearest; the decrees thou holdest in thy hand.
8. The decrees thou directest; the decrees thou claspest to thy breast (?)
9. Like a champion thou subduest the foreign lands.
10. Like the storm-god in the place of the ….. curse the grain goddess thou leavest not.
11. A whirlwind upon their lands thou sendest.
12. Oh leader of heaven and earth their divinity thou art.
13. For them thou didst create the Land (of Sumer).
14. That givest orders unto the gods (?), queen that guidest the universe.
15. That utterest command by the holy order of Anu.
16. The great decisions who (but thee) knoweth to teach?
17. Thou that shatterest the mountains, by a spirit of wrath thou art filled.
18. Beloved of Enlil, thou hast founded the Land.
19. Thou art she that hast effected the mandate of Ninlil.
20. My lady, at thy cry the lands quake.
21. At the fear of thy splendor let mankind
22. With shouting await thee.
23. Fittingly they have received their terrible decrees from thee.
24. Thy lamentations and mournings let them wail for thee.
25. Unto the temple the chief singers shall walk the streets for thee (? ?).
26. From before the face of battle they hasten unto thee.
27. My lady, of thy fury they speak.
28. The spirit like an onrushing storm rushed over them.
29. The spirit with a loud cry annihilated the people.
30. By the storm god they were ….. accursed.
31. By the storm winds they were brought to woe.
32. Thy foot hastens restless in the street.
33. Upon the lyre of weeping they utter lamentation.
34. Oh my lady, the Anunnaki, the great gods,
35. Like a flying sudin-bird from the crannies hasten unto thee.
36. When before thy feet they run,
37. Unto the presence of thy feet they attain not.
38. Thine angry heart who shall pacify?
39. Thine evilly disposed heart let become calm.
40. Oh lady, whose soul is magnanimous; oh lady [whose.. .. .is ….
41. Whose wrath is unpacified …..
42. Lady that stormeth over the mountains…..
43. The mountains (?) thy place (?) …..
44. The great gate …..


1. Its frost…..
2. …..
3. …..
4. Their afflictions…..
5. Their city, an arid habitation, the whirlwinds have filled.
6. Their ….. workmen in ….. supplicate thee.
7. For the brilliant city they mourn in song.
8. The father thy creator sends forth cries of distress for it.
9. May thy holy mouth speak the command and thy feet return.
10. From her midst mayest thou cast the cruel one.
11. Let a woman with her husband speak kindly.
12. During the nights forever let her return unto him.
13. That which is pure in her heart may she disclose.
14. Fervid intercession unto the great son, Sin,
15. Oh lady surpassing the gods who beside thee brings?
16. Establisher of decrees, oh great lady, their lady,
17. Thou that risest from the holy city, thou that surpassest his child-bearing mother,
18. Intelligent and wise, oh queen of the lands,
19. Oh breath of life of thy Land, I will recite thy holy songs.
20. Divinity who has been made agreeable unto the fury of battle, whose words unto their place …..
21. Thou of the unsearchable heart, who purgest faithfully, I will relate thy decrees.
22. The holy mi-ib weapon verily thou causest to enter upon (the foe).
23. “A ruler am I, a ruler ….. of heaven am I.'”
24. The reed censer I bear and I arrange the ritual(?).
25. At the parentalia I place it; and these things I cease not to do.
26. By day I ….. and daily renew
27. By night and day I ….. and in ….. am clothed(?)
28. My ….. of honey ….. I bring.
29. By my pious offerings of baked cakes thou wilt be pacified.
30. Something Enlil lord of heaven and earth
31. To Anu spoke as a command and verily Heaven is opened.
32. Now unto Anu he has spoken the command and thou causest Heaven to shudder.
33. The royal power of Anu thou a woman hast seized.