Origin/Historian/Author: Sumerian (ca. 2000 BCE)
Source: Sumerian Liturgical Texts, By Stephen Langdon, 1917

This Sumerian liturgical text featuring Enlil was recorded around 2000 BCE. One of the six columns is entirely illegible, but the other five are mostly complete. A composition such as this was intended to be sung, perhaps as part of a ceremony, or as part of a sermon much like a modern day religious service.

It begins by describing an already established Sumerian civilization, with Enlil as its patron god. This is followed by a brief decline, which is perhaps due to the rise of Akkad, or the invading Gutians. In either case, these events are then followed by a period of rebuilding, which we can assume is the re-emergence of the Sumerian people, who are known historically as the Neo-Sumerians.

The final portion of the last column is heavily damaged and mostly broken away. However, according to historical data we can assume that it features the rise of the Neo-Sumerians and the re-establishment of their culture after the Akkadians and Gutians were both removed from power.

(NI. 497 + VAT. 1334, ETC)
Full Text Below


1. Like the sun, like the sun his approach illuminates.
2. Like lightning his approach illuminates.
3. Babbar the exalted illuminates.
4. Babbar-Enlil illuminates.
5. The bull the city illuminates.
6. Enlil his city illuminates.
7. The brick-walls of Nippur he illuminates.
8. [The brick-walls] of Ekur he illuminates.
9. The brick-walls of the palace he illuminates.
10. On the brick-walls of Sippar he shines.
11. The brick-walls of Ebarra he illuminates.
12. The city of Anunit he illuminates.
13. On the brick-walls of UlmaS he shines.
14. On Babylon he shines.
15. The brick-walls of Sagilla he illuminates.
16. Spirit that brings the youth to extremity; spirit that brings the maid to extremity.
17. Spirit that destroys the stalls; spirit that desolates the folds.
18. Possessor of wisdom, spirit whose intentions are not discerned.
19. The stall it destroys; the sheepfold it desolates.
20. Small and great it slays.
21. Upon the youth it arrives and that youth wails aloud.
22. Upon the maid it arrives and that maiden wails aloud.
23. The great misu-trees it sweeps away.
24. Spirit that reduces all things to obedience.
25. The word of Enlil rushes forth and eye beholds it not.
27. …..
28. …..
29. The lord of the lands …..
30. Lord of the faithful word …..
31. The father of the Land …..
32. Theshepherd of the dark-headed people …..
33. He of self-created vision …..
34. The hero who directs his host …..
35. He that quiets the strength of rebellion …..

Here followed about five lines concluding the melody and the end of the column.


1. The shepherd is estranged, all the Land is terrorized.
2. Against the city the shepherd is estranged, all the Land is terrorized.
3. The master of threnody against the abodes of Nippur is estranged.
4. Against the brick-walls of Ekur, of Kenur and Enamtila he is estranged.
5. Against the brick-walls of Sippar and the abode Ebarra he is estranged.
6. Against the brick-walls of Tintir and Esagila, etc.
7. Against the city whose lord has cursed it.
8. Its mistress[1] sits in misery.
9. The city, whose lord no longer guides its destiny,
10. Which the lord Enlil surrendered to the winds.
11. The mourner mourns.
12. The wailer beats himself.
13. The herdsman hastens in distress.
14. The shepherd sits down to play the reed of weeping.
15. The anointer commands no more the atonement.
16. The psalmist commands no more the “How long thy heart?”
17. The anointer departs from his riches.
18. Her high-priest from the dark chamber has gone forth.
19. Her sovereign remains not; her queen remains not.
20. The lord cried aloud and rode to the mountains.
21. Her queen cried aloud and rode to the mountains.
22. The fox’s tail bristled.
23. The many colored bird shrieked aloud.
24. Within her is the whistling wind; without her is the whistling wind.
25. Her interior by the wind is made desolate.
26. Within her the master of threnody and weeping has caused men to go forth.
27. Her treasure house from its place has been seized.
28. Her ….. has been taken.
29. Her ….. has been demolished.

[1] Ninlil


(About 22 lines broken from the top.)

6. The divine wild bull of heaven and earth, wild bull of the holy city.
7. Mother of the house of the famous one, goddess, great spouse of the prince.
8. Asarludug, lord of Babylon.
9. His spouse, Panunnakige.
10. The faithful messenger, he named with a good name.
11. The faithful messenger …..
12. The first born daughter of Urasha, his bride.
13. The lord of the wand, adorned with splendor.


1. The name of the builded temple by my name is named, which by my name was not called.
2. The name of the builded city by my name is called, which by my name was not called.
3. “The strange land he smites, the strange land he humiliated,” shall my name be called.
4. “The strange land altogether he terrified,” shall my name be called.
5. “The lands in anger he devastated,” my name shall be called.
6. “The hostile land in anger he destroyed,” shall my name be called.
7. “With ….. waters he makes clean,” shall my name he called.
8. Oh heart, be reconciled, be reconciled, oh heart, repose, repose.
9. Oh heart of Anu, be reconciled, be reconciled.
10. Oh heart of Enlil, be reconciled, be reconciled.
11. Oh heart of the great hero,[1] be reconciled, be reconciled.
12. Oh heart of.. be reconciled, etc.
13. Oh heart of. . . .be reconciled, etc.
14. To cause the heart to repose, let us speak unto thee.
15. Unto thy city like the sun hasten gloriously
16. Unto Nippur like the sun hasten gloriously
17. Unto Ekur like the sun hasten gloriously.
18. Unto Kenur like the sun hasten gloriously.
19. Unto Sippar like the sun hasten gloriously.

[1] Ninurasha


1. Unto Ebarra like the sun hasten gloriously.
2. Unto the city of Anunit like the sun hasten gloriously.
3. Unto Ulmas like the sun hasten gloriously
4. Unto Babylon like the sun hasten gloriously.
5. Unto Esagilla like the sun hasten gloriously.
6. [Thy city Nippur] be built.
7. [Thy temple Ekur] in Nippur be built.
8. [Kenur and Enamtila] be built.
9. Sippar be built, Ebarra be built.
10. Esakudkalam-ma be built,. . . . be built.
11. Babylon be built, Sagilla be built.
12. Ezida be built, Kish be built.
13. Ekisibba be built, Emeteursag be built.
14. Harsagkalamma be built, Eturkalamma be built.
15. Cutha be built, Meslam be built.
16. Dilbat be built, E-ibe-Anu be built.
17. [May one utter petition unto thee.]
18. [May one utter intercession unto thee.]
19. [Oh heart be reconciled, oh heart repose.]

(SBH. No. 39, “Like the Sun Hasten”)
Full Text Below


(About 25 lines broken away at the top.)

1. Thy seeing eyes weary not.
2. When thy neck is set it turns not back.
3. How long until thine estranged heart weary not?
4. The wife he rescued and settled in a strange place.
5. …..
6. The son he rescued and settled in a place not his own.
7. …..
8. The accumulated property thou hast given to the stranger.
9. …..
10. The hoarded treasures thou hast given to the stranger.
11. In its holy throne the stranger sits.
12. …..
13. On its holy couch the stranger lies.
14. …..
15. Thy temple unto the stranger thou hast given.
16. …..
17. Thy city unto the stranger thou hast given;
18. May thy heart repose, thy soul be at peace.
19. Oh Enlil may thy heart repose.
20. [God of the great mountain, crouching wild-bull], may thy heart repose.
21. Nippur thy city he rebuilt.
22. …..
23. Ekur thy temple be rebuilt.
24. Kenur and Enamtila the abode(s) of Nippur be rebuilt.
25. Etemeanki and the abode Edaranna be rebuilt.
26. Unto thy city like the sun hasten in splendor.
28. Unto Nippur thy city like the sun in splendor hasten.
29. Unto Edaranna like the sun in splendor hasten.
30. …..


(8-10 lines missing.)

1. ….. the temple …..
2. Oh exalted one, lord of lands.
3. ….. lord Enlil.
4. Oh exalted one, heroic Asarludug.
5. Mighty hero, lord Enbilulu.
6. Faithful shepherd, shepherd of the dark-headed people.
7. Thou who hast covered thy head with a garment.
8. Thy neck thou hast placed in thy bosom.
9. Thy heart like a reed water bucket thou hast covered.
10. Exalted one thou hast put thine ears in thy bosom.
11. Thy command who can alter?
12. …..
13. Thy help who can surpass?
14. …..
15. From thy vision who escapes?
16. From thy stride who shall flee?
17. In the upper land thy name is famous.
18. …..
19. In the lower land thy name is famous.
20. …..
21. In heaven thou art mighty; in earth thou art mighty. .
22. …..
23. In heaven thou art mighty and thy name is famous.
24. …..
25. Thy name is famous; thou art a mighty god.
26. …..
27. Thou art a mighty god and thy consort is a mighty queen.
28. …..
29. Thy consort is Aruru, sister of Enlil.
30. …..
31. ….. of Enlil

(About 24 lines broken away.)