Origin/Historian/Author: Old Babylonian (ca. 1900 BCE)
Source: Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms, By Stephen Langdon, 1919

This Sumerian liturgical text was composed around 1900 BCE. Recorded in ten columns, five on each side, only six are legible while the rest is completely broken. Thankfully, there is enough material to understand the story being told. It features Enlil, while mentioning a number of other deities, many of which belong to the earliest generations of the gods. This text is valuable when attempting to understand the divine family of the gods, as it offers a reasonable amount of genealogical information.

This text begins with the introduction of Enlil and what appears to be a disagreement regarding events that had occurred in foreign lands. It appears as though his followers, which could be described as the Anunnaki, were unhappy with Enlil’s actions and disregard for life, foreign as it may be. This is followed by the pacification of both Enlil and Anu, implying that it was in fact Anu who was upset with Enlil.

Appearing to be excerpts of numerous texts, the scope of events described do not align chronologically with other literary compositions. This is perhaps due to the formatting of the series as a liturgical text which disrupts the chronology itself.

Full Text Below


1. Exalted one, bull that overwhelms, thy name is on the lands.
2. Lord of the lands, bull that overwhelms, thy name, etc.
3. Lord of the faithful word, bull that overwhelms, etc.
4. Enlil, father of the Land, bull that overwhelms, etc.
5. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, bull that overwhelms, etc.
6. Thou of self-created vision, bull that overwhelms, etc.
7. Wild bull who directs his hosts, bull that overwhelms, etc.
8. Thou that deepest the sleep of perversity, bull that overwhelms, thy name is on the lands.
9. When thy name is laid upon the lands the heavens tremble of themselves,
10. and the earth quakes of itself.
11. Oh Enlil, when thy word is laid upon the lands,
12. When thy command is laid upon the lands,
13. When thy command is laid upon the lands,
14. The heavens tremble of themselves, the earth of itself quakes,
15. The harlot mother, the hierodule mother slays her son,
16. ….. queen of the city, outside the city slays her son.
17. ….. slays her son.
18. Oh exalted ….. at thy word ….. the foreign land thou reducest to the misery of silence.
19. Enlil lord of …..
20. the foreign land thou reduces! to the misery of silence
21. Oh exalted one, as for thee, thy word in heaven speak
22. and heaven shall …..
23. Enlil, as for thee, thy word on earth speak
24. and earth shall not …..
25. God of libation speak [and heaven shall ….. and earth shall not ….. ]
26. Divine wild ox of heaven and earth, wild ox of the good city[1] speak, etc.
27. Mother of the house of the famous one, Damgalnunna,
28. speak, etc.
29. Marduk, son of the good city
30. speak, etc.
31. River goddess, mother of the good city speak, etc.
32. Zarpanit queen of ….. speak, etc.
33. Faithful messenger, called by a good name, speak, etc.
34. [The spirit] reduces [all things] to tribute.
35. How long shall the child-bearing mother reject her son?
36. How long shall the child-bearing mother, queen of the city, cast aside her son?
37. How long shall the child-bearing mother, the wild-cow queen, reject her son?
38. How long in the city shall he of wailing reject his son?
39. How long in the wide land, in Nippur, in the region of the vast abode?
40. Flood that drowns the harvests, who comprehends thy form?
41. Exalted, flood that drowns the harvests who comprehends thy form?
42. Enlil lord of the lands, who etc.

[1] The god Ea of Eridu is meant.


1. Lord of the faithful word, who etc.
2. Enlil father of the Land, who etc.
3. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, who etc.
4. Thou of self-created vision, who etc.
5. Hero who directs his hosts, who etc.
6. Thou that deepest the sleep of perversity, who etc.
7. Oh heart be reconciled, be reconciled, oh heart repose, repose.
8. Oh heart of Anu be reconciled. be reconciled.
9. Oh heart of Enlil be reconciled, etc.
10. Oh heart of the great hero, be reconciled, etc.
11. Kneaded bread for the feast I set,
12. Kneaded bread, kneaded bread.
13. Kneaded bread for the feast I set,
14. By the Great Mountain, Enlil, it has been blessed.
15. By Father Enlil it has been blessed.
16. The Great Mountain Enlil has blessed.
17. The Father Enlil has blessed.
18. Lord, hero of the sacred city, has shown grace.
19. Mother of the house of the famous one, Damgalnunna, has shown grace.
20. Asarludug, son of the sacred city, has shown grace.
21. His wife Zarpanit has shown grace.
22. River goddess, mother of the sacred city, has shown grace.
23. Zarpanit queen of ….. , etc.
24. Faithful messenger, called by a good name, has shown grace.
25. The kneaded bread which has been well made,
26. Which has been well made, the kneaded bread may he eat graciously,
27. May Enlil graciously eat; yea graciously eat.
28. Where Anu sits may the people hasten.
29. [The Anunnaki.] Where, Anu sits let the people hasten.
30. To the temple he enters, the mighty priest of sacrifices to the temple enters.
31. A libation he offers, the priest of hand washing a libation offers.
32. To the temple at midday go up! at sun-set go up.
33. Daily to direct the sacrifices go up !
34. Daily to direct the prayers go up!
35. Daily Anu merciful god on high proclaim.
36. The hero of heaven and earth, hero of the sacred city on high proclaim.
37. To Enlil let all the land, to Enlil let all the people hasten.
38. Unto heaven verily I will libate water, unto the canopy of heaven, unto heaven verily I will libate water. The heart I will appease.
39. I will pour out a libation, the father I will appease.
40. The hero of heaven and earth, the hero of the sacred city I will appease.


26. He has been pacified
27. He has been pacified
28. He has been pacified
29. He has been pacified, the heart of ….. [has been pacified]
30. He has been pacified, the great mountain [Enlil has been pacified]
31. In the ….. plain of Eridu ….. [1]
32. A tempest it is shattering the mountain.
33. The word of the lord is a tempest.
34. The heart of the exalted is a tempest.
35. The heart of Enlil is a tempest.
36. The heart of the lord is in heaven and the heavens waver of themselves.
37. The word of Enlil is on earth and the earth trembles of itself.
38. The word which brings woe to the spirits of earth.
39. His word a prophet has not; a magician it has not.
40. His word is an onrushing tempest, an adversary to oppose it has not.


1. The faithful messenger, he called by a good name.
2. The god who satiates with milk and grain, sag …..
3. Heaven and earth it has pacified.
4. Earth and heaven it pacified.
5. When in Ekur the great mountain Enlil it pacified,
6. [When] in Elamma the great mother Ninlil it pacified,
7. In Annigarra the consort (sister) of Enlil it pacified.
8. The exalted who walketh forth, where tarries he?
9. Who walketh forth, the exalted who walketh forth, where tarries he?
10. The lord of the lands, who walketh forth, where tarries he?
11. The lord of faithful word, who etc.
12. Enlil, father of the Land, who etc.
13. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, who etc.
14. He of self-created vision, who etc.
15. Hero that directs his hosts, who etc.
16. He that sleeps the sleep of perversity, who etc.
17. I in a great bowl will pour out wine to him.
18. I like a wild ox will bow down to the mighty one.
19. “Thy city is destroyed,” will I say to him.
20. “Kenur and Enamtila are destroyed,” will I say to him.
21. “In Sippar Ebarra is destroyed,” etc.
22. “Thy city Babylon is destroyed,” etc.
23. “Esagila and Barsippa are destroyed,” etc.
24. “Ezida and Emahtila are destroyed,” etc.
25. “Etemenanki is destroyed,” etc.
26. “Edaranna is destroyed,” etc.
27. “Wailing on the reed-flute ascends in her,” will I say to him.
28. When I am overjoyous in his presence may I not stand.
29. As to Enlil when I am overjoyous in his presence may I not stand.
30. In the presence of Enlil may I not stand; may he behold me not.
31. I am a stranger and a fugitive.
32. The risen waters seized away; the risen waters seized away.
33. Queen of city and house, great mother Ninlil am I.
34. Aruru, sister of Enlil I am.
35. A queenly caretaker, queen of Nippur I am.
36. An holy queen, queen of the convent I am.
37. In the builded house, in the builded house,
38. Enlil [lord] of lands in the builded house,
39. My consort dwells not in the builded house.


1. Enlil and his consort Ninlil (we will pacify).
2. Anu-Uras kisegunu.
3. Enki and Ninki, Enul and Ninul.
4. Endasurimma, Nindasurimma.[1]
5. The Lord of Duazag, the Queen of Duazag.
6. Mother Ninlil and father Enlil.
7. Enuttilla and Enmensarra.
8. Ninzianna and Ninharsag.
9. Sulpae, lord of the sacrificial board.
10. Mother Sentur, (mother) of the seven gods.[2]
11. The lord light of Nippur, mighty lord.
12. The loud crying, queen of Nippur.
13. Divine first born daughter, divine queen of treasures.
14. Nusku of mighty message, divine spirit of Ekur.
[15. Mother of the temple, Sadarnunna.]
[16. Serah spirit of Esarra.]
[17. The propitious spirit whose splendor is supreme.]
18. The son, [great messenger, Nannar-Sin.]
19. Zir [spouse of Nannar].
20. [The august] prefect, [divine Enlilzi][3]
21. [Enbul son of Esabba.]
22. Hero of [heaven, lord of the great mountain.]
23. Ningal [heavenly mother.]
24. The queen of heaven [who alone is strong.]
25. Her husband [Tammuz.]
26. The mother of the lord[4] Ninsun.
27. Lugalbanda lord of Esnunak.
28. The heavenly sister-in-law, Gestinanna.

[1] Father-mother names of Enlil
[2] In ZA. VI 242, 21, their mother is lshara, another title of the same mother goddess.
[3] A legendary king who had received apotheosis, and was placed in the court of Enlil.
[4] Gilgamesh.


1. Enanun mother of loud weeping.
2. Ninda-Cud, the radiant son.
3. Sunirda, queen, heroine of battle.
4. The pious daughter, Ninkarnunna.
5. Queen(?) of the dead, Lumma the heroic.
6. Lord of the grave, lord of the seizing hand.
7. Great Girra, hero unopposable.
8. The good genius of the dark ways of the plain.[1]
9. Ninsig Guskinbanda,
10. Lord of whatsoever is, the sculptured form.
11. The earth woman, beneficent Bau.
12. Lord of might, lord of decrees, priest of the deep.
13. Asnan the divine cleanser, the ….. loud crying.
14. Lord of light, director of the earth, and the daughter of the prince.[2]
15. The demon of my city the dog of seven heads.
16. Gibil ….. warlike man.
17. Uttaedde lord of the holy place.
18. [Lord of the land, light of heaven.]
19. [Lord Nergal, him of the seizing hand.]
20. [Allat and Ningiszida]
21. [ ]
22. [ ]
23. [Irris, the heroic] lord of the soil.
24. [The divine mother of the temple of the chief city4 queen who gives life to the dead.]
25. The lofty browed queen of Isin.
26. Pabilsag lord of Larak.
27. Gunura bar of the Land.
28. The pious Damu lord of the flood.
29. lmmer lord of terror.[3]
30. ….. the river.
31. Lord of the souls of Sumer, of the souls of the lands.
32. Suddam, daughter of the prince, mother of Esabba.

[1] Spirit of the lower world.
[2] Aja
[3] Mer, aka Illuwer

(The titular litany)

1. To the temple with prayer, with prayer let us go.
2. To the lyre unto the temple which surpasses all let us go.
3. To the lyre unto the merciful one with prayer, [unto Enlil,]
4. To the lyre unto god, the lord, with prayer, unto Enlil [let us go].
5. Unto him who is god of his people with prayer let us go.
6. We “Oh temple repose” in prayer come.
7. We “Oh earth repose” in prayer come, unto Enlil (come).
8. To pacify the heart of the lord behold we come unto Enlil.
9. To pacify the heart, to pacify the soul, behold we come to Enlil.
10. We will pacify the heart of the lord, yea of Enlil.
11. The heart of Anu and the heart of Enlil we will pacify.
12. [The heart of] Enlil and his wife Ninlil [we will pacify.]
13. The heart of Enki, Ninki, Enmul and Ninmul[1] [we will pacify.]
14. A god until they are finished.

(The Recessional)

15. My lord thou art, light[2] of my city, a hero thou art.
16. My illumination, oh valiant lord, a hero thou art.
17. Oh valiant lord, a hero thou art, its defender thou art.
18. Like Shamash thou art ….. into heaven enters.
19. Like Nannar where thy son in heaven hastens.
20. My lord thy word on man has fallen.
21. Thy word on him of the foreign land has fallen.
22. Thy word on men as many as are not obedient has fallen.
23. My lord beneficent waters in thy city cause to spring forth.
24. Father Enlil ….. in thy city cause to come forth.
25. A prayer for the brick walls of Ekur, that it return to its place.
26. It is finished, the series “Exalted, bull that overwhelms.”

[1] All father-mother names of Enlil
[2] For Enlil connected with the idea of light


1. Like the sun-god arise …..
2. Oh lord…..
3. Father Enlil, lord of the lands.
4. Enlil lord of faithful word.
5. Crouching wild ox, bull that rests not.
6. Enlil herdsman of the wide earth.
7. Lord who summons his toilers, recorder of the earth.
8. Lord who causes to abound oil for his toilers, milk for the newly born.
9. Lord whose abode is the city of weeping.
10. In whose chamber oracles are interpreted.
11. Father Enlil in (thy) city Nippur.
12. In Ekur temple of (thy) heart’s choice.
13. In the great dark chamber of odorous forest and cedar.
14. In ….. ,
15. In ….. the house of vision,
16. In ….. house which knows the sunlight not,
17. In the house of the “reed of sorrow,” which eye beholds not,
18. In the great ….. causing prosperity to abound,
19. In Ekua gate of the lifting of the eyes,
20. …..


21. Prayer for the brick walls of Ekur that it be restored to its place.
22. It is a service of prostrations.

(The Exalted One Who Walketh, e-lum didara)

The princess, the princess, in misery shouts the wailing of the city.
1. …..
2. How long my queen, the pious woman, in misery?
3. The bride of Esagila in misery?
4. First born daughter of Urasha in misery?
5. First born daughter of the temple Ibe-Anum in misery?
6. The obedient queen, she the ….. , in misery?
7. My queen Nana in misery?
8. (blow long) shall thy temple for thy temple in misery be?
9. Thy city for thy city in misery be?
10. Thy wives for thy wives in misery be?
11. Thy sons for thy sons in misery be?
12. (How long) for the brick walls shall the brick walls restored wail?
13. For the dust shall the restored dust wail?
14. Bright horned light of heaven mighty of itself, in thy excellence, yea thou in thy excellence,
15. …..
16. O father Nannar bright horned light of heaven, mighty of itself, (in thy excellence, yea thou in thy excellence),
17. Father Nannar, lord of all the heavens,
18. Lord Nannar. lord of the rising light,
19. Great lord, who himself has wrought evil to thy city, mighty of himself,
20. As for thy city Nippur, he who has wrought evil to thy city,
21. All thy Land …..
22. Thy city and land are afflicted with woe.
23. In thy ….. and thy ….. the scribes are driven away.
24. In thy ….. and thy ….. the augurers are exiled.
25. Thy ….. is destroyed.
26. …..
27. …..
28. …..
29. …..


1. Exalted hero of the world, doth any one comprehend thy form?
2. …..
3. Honored one, lord, great champion.
4. Great champion, lord, light of Enlil.
5. Honored one, son of Ekur.
6. Great champion, lord of Esumedu.
7. Lord of Esamah, lord of E-ibesugud.
8. Lord, great messenger, the herald Nusku.
9. The twin god, Lugalgirra.
10. As to thy commands, who comprehends thy form?
11. As to thy succor, who comprehends thy form?
12. As to thy word, who comprehends thy form?
13. She wanders on the plain, on the plain she wails.
14. The mother, queen who gives life to the dead, on the plain wails.
15. The queen; lady Nigingar, on the plain wails.
16. The queen, lady of Larak, on the plain wails.
17. The queen, lady of lsin, on the plain wails.
18. The queen, mother of the holy city, on the plain wails.
19. The queen, the ….. mother, on the plain wails.
20. Bau, the pious woman, on the plain wails.
21. The abode, Erabriri, of the lord Sakutmah on the plain wails.
22. Oh honored one, the exuberant, alas, alas.
23. Ninety-six is the number of its lines. Third tablet of Elum didara, unfinished.
24. Copy from Barsippa, according to its original, written and collated. Tablet of Beliksur son of Belishkunni,
25. son of Iddin-Papsukkal worshipper of Nebo. In fraud he has not translated it and with wilful readings has he not published it.